FAQs

The help clients, marketers and brand owners understand brand valuation, we have produce a series of short definitions and descriptions of key brand and financial related terms used throughout our website and research.

  • How does brand equity impact business performance and value?

    When a brand has strong Brand Equity, this typically translates into superior performance on a number of key behavioural metrics. These are the most common metrics on which brand performance and thus brand equity can can be judged:

    • Market penetration: A measure of the number of consumers purchasing or using a particular brand as a proportion of the total number of consumers purchasing or using that brand in a defined time period.
    • Frequency: For each given buyer or group of buyers of a brand the number of times in a defined time period that the brand is purchased. Thus, in a given time period: Penetration × average frequency × size of target universe = total volume of purchases.
    • Recent purchase: The proportion of those purchasing a brand in a given time period who purchase it again within the same time period. Repeat purchase is often used as a measure of customer loyalty to a brand and is usually seen as a key indicator of brand strength.
    • Loyalty: Customer loyalty can be thought of as both an attitudinal and behavioural tendency to favour one brand over all others, whether due to satisfaction with the product or service, its convenience or performance, or simply familiarity and comfort with the brand.
    • Price Premium: One of the strongest and most important consequences of strong brand equity is the ability of that brand to command a price premium vs other brands in its sector.

    For more information on this, read our whitepaper on value-based brand management here.

  • How does branding add value to a business?

    A strong brand is a valuable asset for any business. A strong brand can drive higher customer acquisition, satisfaction, loyalty, and advocacy. Furthermore, strong brands contribute to business growth and profitability.

  • How is brand strength calculated?

    Brand Strength is the efficacy of a brand’s performance on intangible measures, relative to its competitors.

    Brand Finance quantifies Brand Strength using a 'Brand Strength Index (BSI)' - which is a competitive benchmarking tool that identifies the strength of each brand in question.

    This can be done as a standalone exercise in a brand evaluation, or as part of the brand valuation methodology when placing a monetary value on the brand. The Brand Strength Index in this use case forms part of the Royalty Relief methodology. For more information check out the methodology page here.

    The Brand Strength Index is a framework that aims to consider the position of a potential licensee or acquirer of the brand. As such we split the Index into three sections:

    • Brand Investment - to ensure brand building exercises are being conducted for future success of the brand.
    • Brand Equity - to ensure the brand is currently perceived well across a balanced scorecard of stakeholders.
    • Brand Performance - to ensure the brand is delivering the economic benefits that one would hope.

    Brands may score very highly on the Brand Strength Index while not necessarily being the largest brands by monetary value.

  • How is brand value calculated?

    Brand Finance calculates the values of the brands in its league tables using the Royalty Relief approach – a brand valuation method compliant with the industry standards set in ISO 10668.

    This involves estimating the likely future revenues that are attributable to a brand by calculating a royalty rate that would be charged for its use, to arrive at a ‘brand value’ understood as a net economic benefit that a licensor would achieve by licensing the brand in the open market.

    For more information on Brand Valuation, have a read of our whitepaper on Value-Based Brand Management - Conducting Brand Valuations

  • What actions impact brand equity and value?

    Generally, in order to build brand equity Brand and Marketing Managers focus on the following activities (also known as levers):

    •  Advertising
    • Sponsorship
    • Sales Promotion
    • Distribution
    • Pricing
    • Visual Identity & Packaging
    • Public Relations & Social Media
    • Product (Formulation/Design/Service)
    • Innovation

    For more information on this, read our whitepaper on value-based brand management here.

  • What are brand valuations useful for?

    There are a multitude of reasons one might complete a brand valuation: purchase price allocation, damages litigation, capital gains tax planning, brand positioning and marketing budget allocation to name a few. Some of the most important ones include:

    • Purchase Price and Investment Allocation
    • Brand Tracking
    • Brand Identity and Brand Experience Decisions
    • Brand Positioning Decisions
    • Brand Architecture and Brand Transition Decisions
    • Transfer Pricing & Licensing

    Click here if you would like to request a bespoke Brand Valuation Report. 

  • What are the international standards on brand valuation?

    Brand Finance helped craft the internationally recognised standard on Brand Valuation – ISO 10668, and the recently approved standard on Brand Evaluation – ISO 20671.

    Brand Valuation – ISO 10668 – specifies a framework for brand valuation, including objectives, bases of valuation, approaches to valuation, methods of valuation and sourcing of quality data and assumptions. It also specifies methods for reporting the results of such valuation.

    To read more about Brand Valuation check out our whitepaper here.

    Brand Evaluation – ISO 20671 - this standard sets out a rigorous framework and set of principles for conducting brand evaluation from an input/output point of view. As such it is intended to serve as the standard for the development and implementation of other standards for brand evaluation - and in addition aligning to international standard of brand valuation – i.e. ISO 10668.

    To read more about Brand Evaluation check out our whitepaper here.

  • What is a brand value report?

    A Brand Value Report provides a complete breakdown of the assumptions, data sources, and calculations used to arrive at your brand’s value.

    Each report includes expert recommendations for growing brand value to drive business performance and offers a cost-effective way to gaining a better understanding of your position against competitors.

    You can find out more about our Brand Value Reports or request one here.

  • What is brand value?

    Brand Value is the monetary value of a brand as an asset, including the associated name, logo, trademarks, marketing intangibles and associated IP. However, Brand Value usually includes more than these easily transferrable assets, as it incorporates the potential future cash flows attributable to the brand due to increased stakeholder sentiment and perceptions.

  • What is the difference between brand valuation and brand evaluation?

    Brand Evaluation is the measurement of the non-monetary value of a brand based on a number of relevant indicators that relate to the impact of the brand on its consumers. This type of evaluation relies on both monetary and non-monetary factors.

    Whereas, Brand Valuation focusses on the monetary value of a brand and its commercial worth to a company as a transferable and income-generating asset.

    The two concepts are inherently linked – Brand Evaluation is required as part of a Brand Valuation exercise. In turn, Brand Evaluation should track brand performance on dimensions which link directly or indirectly to commercial performance and are not ‘vanity metrics’.

    Brand Finance helped craft the internationally recognised standard on Brand Valuation – ISO 10668, and the recently approved standard on Brand Evaluation – ISO 20671.

    To read more about Brand Evaluation check out our whitepaper here.

    To read more about Brand Valuation check out our whitepaper here.

  • What is the difference between brand value and brand equity?

    Brand Value is the net present value of the estimated future cash flows attributable to the Brand.

    Brand Equity is a part of Brand Strength and refers to the current esteem of a brand among relevant stakeholders.

  • What is the difference between brand value and brand strength?

    Brand Strength is the efficacy of a brand’s performance on intangible measures, relative to its competitors.

    In order to determine the strength of a brand, we look at Marketing Investment, Stakeholder Equity, and the impact of those on Business Performance. Each brand is assigned a Brand Strength Index (BSI) score out of 100, which feeds into the brand value calculation. Based on the score, each brand is assigned a corresponding rating up to AAA+ in a format similar to a credit rating.

    A brand’s BSI score is taken into consideration when calculating the overall brand value. 

    Brand value represents the net present value of the estimated future cash flows attributable to a brand. It develops and grows as a result of the strengthening of the relationship between the brand and the consumer.

    For more information check out our methodology here.

  • What is the difference between enterprise value, branded business value, brand contribution and brand value?

    Enterprise value is the value of the entire enterprise, made up of multiple branded businesses. Where a company has a purely monobranded architecture, the ‘enterprise value’ is the same as ‘branded business value’.

    Branded business value is the value of a single branded business operating under the subject brand. A brand should be viewed in the context of the business in which it operates. Brand Finance always conducts a branded business valuation as part of any brand valuation. We evaluate the full brand value chain in order to understand the links between marketing investment, brand tracking data, and stakeholder behaviour.

    Brand contribution is the overall uplift in shareholder value that the business derives from owning the brand rather than operating a generic brand. The brand values contained in our league tables are those of the potentially transferable brand assets only, making ‘brand contribution’ a wider concept. An assessment of overall ‘brand contribution’ to a business provides additional insights to help optimise performance.

    Brand value is the value of the trademark and associated marketing IP within the branded business. Brand Finance helped to craft the internationally recognised standard on Brand Valuation – ISO 10668. It defines brand as a marketing-related intangible asset including, but not limited to, names, terms, signs, symbols, logos, and designs, intended to identify goods, services or entities, creating distinctive images and associations in the minds of stakeholders, thereby generating economic benefits.

  • Why is having a strong brand equity important?

    Brands derive their value from their reputation, otherwise known as ‘Brand Equity’. The term Brand Equity is widely used in the marketing and branding world to describe the relative stature of different brands and to facilitate dialogue around how a brand asset may be measured.

    Brands that have strong brand equity typically command a greater price premium, achieve higher market shares, find it easier to gain distribution on favourable trade terms, attract superior quality partners and attract more capable employees at lower cost.

    For more information on this, check out our whitepaper on value-based brand management here.